Oct 19, 2013 - train tunnel, petite ceinture, abandoned underground railway, paris, france - Click photo to visit site and view larger image La petite ceinture DSLR scan of 400 shots. The old stations of the inner Parisian suburbs ("Petite Ceinture," or "Little Belt") are reborn: this railway line, a jewel of Parisian heritage, that once encircled Paris has about 30 stations. This map was created by a user. Ce contexte ferroviaire et naturel qu'il appartient à tous de préserver favorise la création de cet espace vert qui a gardé son caractère original de friche tout en s'intégrant au tissu urbain. La Petite Ceinture In Parijs lopen verschillende oude spoorbaantjes die in de 19e eeuw gebruikt werden voor goederen transport binnen de stad. SNCF Réseau est propriétaire de la petite Ceinture qui est . The idea for Paris' Chemin de Fer de Petite Ceinture originated with its fortifications: rail transport was still relatively new when Paris' city fortifications were completed in 1845, and France's Generals saw the new technology as a means to quickly move troops, machinery, ammunition and provisions between points along the circular wall. The Petite Ceinture de Paris line is an old 32-kilometer long double-track railway line (excluding connections) that ran around Paris inside the Maréchaux boulevards. De oude PC lijntjes zijn gek genoeg nog behoorlijk intact en ook …  The Ceinture syndicate reduced train frequency again that year, with only four trains an hour in each direction at peak hours, and two trains an hour for the rest of the day. Foursquare can help you find the best places to go to. , Several other improvements as the 1900 Universal Exposition approached: a temporary 'Claude Decaen' stop (that would become permanent from 1906) to serve Exposition installations in the Parc de Vincennes, new Ceinture Syndicate cars and engines (more Nord-built 030Ts), electric lighting for all 186 cars, and the Champ de Mars station was modified with, in addition to its platforms serving for trains continuing to Invalides, twenty platforms as a terminus for trains from all destinations. Destroyed or abandoned, the city of Paris has decided to “put them back on track!" It exits Paris in a tunnel ending in Clichy. When plans to reanimate Paris' tramway in a ring encircling Paris began from 1995, re-using parts of the Petite Ceinture was under serious consideration. , After a slight increase because of the Metro's immobilisation because of the 1910 floods, the Ceinture passenger traffic continued its decline, with 17 million passengers for 1911.  From 1866, in preparation for its connection to the Ceinture Rive Gauche, its quays were lowered, and a new Auteuil terminal, lateral to the first, took trains from the Saint-Lazare station, creating a correspondence with the old platforms that were from then dedicated to Ceinture Rive Gauche service. Since the rail barons of the time were persuaded that direct connection to a competing line would endanger their control over their respective region monopolies, there was no company inter-station service of any kind: freight and passengers travelling between regions of France had no choice but to commute from station to station by road through the congested capital.. The Chemin de fer de Ceinture Rive Gauche was still a passenger only line, but from 1874 a junction between the Ouest lines near the Ceinture 'Vaugirard' station allowed freight trains a shortcut from the bifurcation at Viroflay. 26 févr.  From 1861, the North company took over providing locomotion with seven new 040 T (numbered 551-557), engines that would become the signature Ceinture locomotive. , The end of the Petitie Ceinture's passenger service was also the dissolution of the Grande-Ceinture-Petite-Ceinture Syndicate, and the concession obligations were divided between the Est, Nord and État (that had since bought the Ouest company) railway companies in a decree on 23 October 1934. From 1841, Paris dotted itself with a ring of defences a few kilometres outside these: completed in 1845, the Thiers wall fortifications enclosed land that was mostly countryside, save for a few 'faubourgs' extending for a distance along the roadways from its city gates. The antenna and stations were open to service from 18 October 1867, three days before the inauguration of the slaughterhouses themselves. The second Ceinture section delivered, between Pont du Nord and Aubervilliers (the point where the Nord-Strasbourg arc-connection joined with the Ceinture railway), opened to service on 30 September 1853. This map was created by a user. The Petite Ceinture de Paris line is an old 32-kilometer long double-track railway line (excluding connections) that ran around Paris inside the Maréchaux boulevards. The company least concerned with freight matters, the Ouest, had abstained from the agreement, but in 1880 proposed merging the two Ceinture syndicates (Petite and Grande): this would allow the companies to transfer their freight traffic to the outer ring and dedicate the inner ring to passenger and Parisian-commerce-destined freight traffic. Disused since 1934, its tracks are now a haven for a rare biodiversity of wild flowers and fauna; it boasts more than 200 species of plants and more than 70 animal species. Providing a passenger service for these 'new arrondissements' became yet another State goal, as was the need for railway transport to the upcoming 1867 International Exposition that would bring crowds of visitors to the Left Bank Champ de Mars. La Petite Ceinture Paris and its old railway stations are one of the best Paris hidden gems. La végétation s'installe peu à peu sur les ouvrages ferroviaires, créant des habitats propices à la faune et à la flore.  In this agreement, the state would return the Auteuil-line concession to the Ouest company, would complete the already-underway landscaping and bridges needed for the line, as well work an 'eventual' additional concession for a rail connection between their Auteuil line and the Ceinture Rive Droite at Batignolles; the state reserved, all the same, an eight-year delay during which it reserved the right to purchase some or all of the concession in case ongoing plans for a 'métropolitan' railway line went through. Späht man durch eines der Quadrate des Maschenzauns, kann man Martial-Arts-Kämpfern zusehen, die am Rande der Ceinture trainieren und im Chor Kungfu-Schreie ausstoßen.  In another effort to ease its freight-traffic overload, the Ceinture Syndicate purchased its first and only Diesel engine in 1932: an 800-horsepower 'Sulzer' machine numbered 'D1', it would aid the composition of freight wagons before they were attached to a steam engine for Ceinture transit. Parks. Explore Paris off the beaten track walking on railroad tracks: abandoned train stations, cool street art, interesting wild nature between its abandoned railroads, and a lunch pause at la Recyclerie Paris. , While planning to replace Paris several intra muros slaughterhouses with a single complex near La Villette in 1859, Napoleon III demanded that the new slaughterhouse be connected to the Ceinture by rail, a plan that became a concession and decree on 19 October 1864. , The number of passengers had already begun to drop by then, with a 4.55% drop between 1902 and 1903. In 1934 werd op het grootste gedeelte van de lijn het personenvervoer gestaakt. An initial 1842 study resulted in three projects for railways to the inside of the fortifications, another between the forts outside them, and another ring in a still larger diameter outside the city, but by 1845 the government's increasingly urgent priority was joining the nation's railways through a Right Bank portion of the inner-fortification rails.  Essent  From then the only connection to the Gare St-Lazare from the ceinture was through the Boulainvilliers antenna (electrified since 1919), but this service, little used by passengers, ended from 1924. Europe ; France ; Ile-de-France ; Paris ; Things to Do in Paris ; Petite Ceinture du 13eme; Search. Planning a trip to Paris? , Contrary to these measures, the Ceinture Syndicate reversed its stance on freight traffic, and returned to its pre-Exposition Petite Ceinture freight itineraries in 1902. It is worth mentioning that, during the above, Paris had doubled in size: from 1860, Paris annexed all the 'country communes' between its city tax walls and the fortifications, which put the formerly countryside Ceinture line within the new City limits. The remnants of Évangile station were demolished in 2011. Very difficult to have a clean model with all those plants.  The future of the Paris-Auteuil passenger line, now owned by the État (state) company, had been a subject of debate since the State (as the État company) bought the line ten years before: first proposed as an addition to the still-growing Métropolitan underground railway network, the state also imagined extending its electrified service along the former Ceinture Rive Gauche line, but in the end service continued as before with the only change being, from 1935, a tarification modification to a single-class 'Metro type' ticket and fee. , From 1852 the state had continued, non-officially, their own plan-study for the Left Bank arc of rail that would complete their original fortification-provision goals, and from 1857 this became an official pre-project that Napoleon III declared 'of public interest' in 1861. The number of Ceinture passengers was near 5 million passengers a year in 1880, but rose sharply from then at 13 million in 1883 peaking at between 18 and 19 million for the 1889 Universal Exposition that was accredited with a 'boost' of around 4 million visitors during its May–November eight-month duration. Although maintained as a freight line, even this use of the Petite Ceinture had come to a practical standstill by the 1980s. Reliable and affordable class management software for dance, gymnastics, martial art, tennis club, etc. Learn how to create your own. However, the planning board opted for a line along the Boulevards des Maréchaux (Boulevards of the Marshals, a ring of boulevards, formerly a road to the inside of the City's former 'Fortifications' defences). Planning a trip to Paris? Paris' former Chemin de fer de Petite Ceinture ('small(er) belt railway'), also colloquially known as La Petite Ceinture, was a circular railway built as a means to supply the city's fortification walls, and as a means of transporting merchandise and passengers between Paris' major rail-company stations. Status aller IMT-Dienste (gelb: Beeinträchtigungen // rot: … La gare de Montrouge Ceinture, donnant sur l'avenue du Général Leclerc, est en cours de réhabilitation.La gare Ouest Ceinture avec son entrée sur la rue … The post-1848-revolution government was not in an any better position to negotiate and all the Second Republic government's coercive manoeuvring managed to achieve was the rail companies making freight-exchange deals and mergers amongst themselves. Petite Ceinture du 13eme, Paris: Address, Petite Ceinture du 13eme Reviews: 3.5/5. Cahier des clauses techniques particulières. Very difficult to have a clean model with all those plants. La Petite Ceinture du 14e. Find great things to do. De Petite Ceinture is een 32 kilometer lange, deels verlaten en opgebroken ringspoorlijn in Parijs.De tussen 1852 en 1869 aangelegde lijn volgt het tracé van de boulevards des Maréchaux, die op hun beurt weer de stadsomwalling van Thiers volgen. A few meters further one can admire on the right side the red brick building of the former train station of Vaugirard and have a look at the mural painting on the opposite side. The construction of the line between the Pont du Nord and Ivry (the Rive Gauche Orléans company freight yard), as it undercut the hills of Montmartre and Belleville, was more problematic: several landslides delayed the work there, but it was delivered in one track from December 1853, freight service began from 25 March, and was fully functional after its second rail was delivered in May 1854.. Although the Paris-Auteuil and Ceinture Rive Droite section plans had accounted for this eventuality, the Ceinture Rive Droite had many countryside-style road-crossings, a hindrance that became more important as Paris' population grew. The connection between Gare du Nord and Gare de l'Est was in use until the 2000s but (as of 2011[update]) has seen use fall dramatically. La petite ceinture DSLR scan of 400 shots. The line's passenger service was a popular means of public transport until its 1900 Universal Exposition peak-traffic year.  The Ouest company, on their side of the agreement, would lay the rail, provide all the buildings, and execute and maintain rail service; for the Exposition, the Ouest agreed to lay a 'temporary' antenna from its 'Grenelle' station north to the Champ de Mars, and make the required modifications to their Auteuil line that would allow it to be used by freight trains.  From its 1866 opening to passenger-only service, the entire line ran alternating Ceinture Syndicate and Ouest trains between the Ceinture line's then 'Avenue de Clichy' (formerly 'Batignolles-Clichy') and 'Auteuil' terminus at a rate of one train an hour in each direction, and at a rate of one every half-hour on Sundays and holidays.  The entire 33-kilometer trip, with its 21 stops, took, at best, 1h50 then. Since then, sections of the Petite Ceinture's trenches and infrastructure have been recuperated and renovated for the inter-urban RER C passenger transport service, some of its former stations have been sold to local commerce and services. Un extrait du film "Petite Ceinture, Petite Campagne" réalisé par François Godard en 1996 avec des images ... 14:27. The Chemin de Fer de Ceinture's passenger traffic was on the rise, and it was expected to be higher for the upcoming 1878 Universal Exposition.  The Auteuil line was joined to the Ceinture only through its Auteuil terminus from then; the two lines would become further distinct when the Auteuil line, with the Boulanvilliers antenna, was electrified one year later. - epicery : Les Courses en Mieux La Petite Ceinture de Paris. In exchange for its participation, the Ouest offered its Ceinture Rive Gauche and Courcelles bifurcation concessions, but demanded that its Paris-Auteuil line be exempt from it: this agreement was approved by decree on 11 November 1881, and effective from April 1883.  Not concerning the Ceinture directly, but attached to this extension, was another Ouest project approved on 14 June 1897: the 'Boulanvilliers' line extension that, crossing the river on a 'viaduc de Passy' just below the pont de l'Alma, would allow Ceinture and St-Lazare passengers a much shorter trip between the city centre and the Champ de Mars. One of the legally accessible parts is the Petite Ceinture in the 15th arrondissement in the south of Paris. The Nord and Paris-Lyon-Méditerranée lines still had no passenger correspondence points with the Ceinture, but this changed with the 1875 opening of the Nord-line 'Nord Ceinture' station near the Ceinture's 'La Chapelle-Saint-Denis' station, and the Paris-Lyon-Méditerranée's 'Bercy-Ceinture' station on their lines near the Ceinture 'La Rapée-Bercy' station, and Est-Ceinture re-opened from 15 May 1878. Also for the 1889 exposition, the Ceinture eliminated the train-change required between Courcelles-Ceinture and Courcelles-Levallois: from then, Ceinture trains could travel a full circle around Paris, and Ceinture trains no longer went to the Gare Saint-Lazare, serviced through a transfer to or from a Paris-Auteuil train at Courcelles-Levallois.  Leaving the Gare Saint-Lazare rails just to the north of the station, the 'Paris-Auteuil' line arced west, passed through the town of Batignolles, then arced south with several stops before its terminus in the town of Auteuil. An agreement earlier that year granted the Ceinture rail between its Champ de Mars freight yard and the east of its Avenue de Clichy station to the 'Region Ouest' (former 'État') company-member of the SNCF formed in 1938; this length of rail would later become part of the future RER C through Paris. Geographic data related to Chemin de fer de Petite Ceinture at OpenStreetMap, I - the Syndicated 'Chemin de Fer de Ceinture' (Rive Droite), II - the Ouest Company's Paris – Auteuil passenger line, III - the Ouest Company's 'Chemin de Fer de Ceinture Rive Gauche', Local Freight, Dismantlement and Abandonment, Alfred Martin (officier d'Académie.) Currently a communal flower-vegetable garden and orchard. Paris' first Metro line opened that year: from then, the numbers of those using the Petite Ceinture passenger service dropped steadily until its closure in 1934. Le Métropolitain de Paris, built at the turn of the century, brought about the decline of the Petite Ceinture. Ook verbonden zij de oude losliggende dorpjes (inmiddel geannexeerd door de stad) met elkaar.  Meanwhile, the Syndicate Petite Ceinture's passenger traffic was losing about one million passengers every two years, and had dropped below 8 million by 1926. Bienvenue sur la section "petites annonces gratuites" Thomann. Découvrez vos propres épingles sur Pinterest et enregistrez-les. [Taken in Paris (France) - 27Jul13] See all the photos of this place in this set : Petite Ceinture - Paris [Place] See all the urbex photos in this set : [Urbex] See all the Paris photos in this set : Paris [City] See all the Lomo LC-Wide photos in this set : [Lomo LC-Wide] 2012 - Cette épingle a été découverte par amenet. , From 4 May 1931, several letters and meetings about the situation with the Minister of Public Works resulted in a plan end passenger service for the line, and to replace it with a 'PC' bus service that would run along the Boulevards Maréchaux between Courcelles-Ceinture and Auteuil: in the final agreement signed by the Minister 28 February 1934, the Ceinture Syndicate was authorised to end its passenger service from 1 April that year. Le tracé de la Petite Ceinture, construite de 1852 à 1869 et désaffectée de 1934 à 1985, a été entièrement conservée dans le 14e arr. , Access to the unused rail tracks was partially forbidden, but enthusiasts explored it nonetheless, describing it as a quiet, natural garden space within Paris. The Ouest company had opened a 'Reuilly' freight station off of its Paris-Vincennes line in 1877, and the Ceinture Rive Gauche 'Bel-Air' junction opened to freight service two years later. National Park. Wartungsarbeiten finden nach Ankündigung Montags von 7:00 Uhr bis 9:00 Uhr statt.. Statusmeldungen: PANDA ist von anderen Diensten der Universität abhängig. Class Manager, £25.00 p/m. , The Petite Ceinture had become a popular mode of transport towards the end of the 19th century. 26 févr. Il est inscrit au Réseau ferré national (RFN), à l’exception d’un tronçon à l’ouest, entre Auteuil et la Muette dans le 16e arrondissement, aménagé depuis 2007 en sentier nature ; et de la section du 17e arrondissement comprise entre la rue Alphonse-de-Neuville et le pont Cardinet, dite Tranchée Pereire. A kind of illicit pedestrian counterpart to the boulevard périphérique, the Petite Ceinture is one of Paris’s least well-guarded secrets, in both senses. In 2017, the - Petite Ceinture - remained a unique space within the Parisian landscape, playing a role in the history of the city, rooted in the collective imagination, both mysterious and preserved, as well as fragile and much sought after.  Two others, 'La Chapelle-Saint-Denis' and 'Bel Air', opened before two years later; the latter would be the line's first 'correspondence' point from 1863 when the Est-owned 'Paris-Vincennes' line (to its place de la Bastille terminus) added a 'Bel-Air-Paris' station just below the Syndicate 'Bel-Air-Ceinture' station. Un itinéraire très diversifié, à l'image des arrondissements traversés, qui privilégie les tronçons aménagés de l'ancienne voie ferrée, les squares et jardins, et les ruelles et passages à … Served the Vaugirard slaughterhouses, today the Georges-Brassens park. Retrouvez tous les horaires en un coup d'oeil. The Pereire-owned Ouest company requested and obtained the government railway concession that 'extended the ceinture railway through Batignolles and Auteuil' in 1852. The Ceinture service was at first reserved for only 'main station' companies, but from 1 September 1855 opened to local merchants receiving goods, and two freight stations, 'Ceinture de Charonne' and 'La Petite Villette', opened in 1855 and 1856, respectively.  In the same period, the Auteuil line had 9 million passengers in 1920, a drastic drop to 6 million one year later, and by 1930 had only 4,109,000 passengers. Artsy, eco-responsible, jazzy or gourmet: here's a quick tour of these cool new places. The station bears the name of American civil rights activist Rosa Parks. Auch interessant: 14 Dinge, die man in Paris vermeiden sollte. La Petite Ceinture du 14e. The onset of World War I slowed the passenger exodus somewhat, but because of a lack of workers and the price of combustibles then, the Ceinture Syndicate stopped its service to the Paris-Auteuil from December 1915, from when the Ceinture's terminuses became Auteuil and Courcelles-Ceinture. Save.  The open-second-level cars had been the cause of a few under-tunnel-and-bridge deaths and a few suicides over the years, and, under pressure from the state, began to replace them progressively with new single-level cars, profiting also from the occasion to replace Ouest material (that they were still using since the Ceinture Syndicate merger) with cars owned by the Syndicate itself. The new station would be used, from 1896, to experiment with raising the platform from its track level to a height that would ease passenger access to the trains: deemed a success, and extended to all Ceinture Syndicate stations, it condemned many of the line's older step-access cars to disuse. The Ceinture Syndicate, pleased with its Exposition-passenger service results, after a period of experimentation after the Est company withdrew its trains at the Exposition's end, decided to make the fifteen-minute passenger service permanent from 1881, and from the following year, the Paris-Auteuil section topped its service as well; in all, the Ceinture had a passenger-service frequency of 4-8 trains an hour in each direction, but this cadence required a total suppression of freight traffic at certain times at certain points along the Ceinture Rive Droite line. Some vestiges remain. Het goederenvervoer is in de jaren negentig beëindigd. Dosiero:Petite Ceinture ferroviaire (Paris 14e) - Gare Ouest-Ceinture 16 - 4 octobre 2017.jpg El Vikipedio, la libera enciklopedio Salti al navigilo Salti al serĉilo A new stop on Tram Line 3b opened at the station site on 15 December 2012 and the RER station opened on 13 December 2015. After increasingly hostile state pressure, the companies opened five hastily-built passenger stations in 1862: 'Batignolles-Clichy', 'Belleville-Villette' (near the "La Petite Villette" freight station), 'Ménilmontant', and 'Charonne' (in the existing Charonne freight yard), and 'La Rapée-Bercy'. Cliquen treffen sich, um HipHop zu hören, die Silhouetten von verliebten Pärchen schimmern zwischen den Blätterdächern hindurch. ... kom je aan uit het het oosten dan arriveer je [...] La Petite Ceinture in het 15e. Paris' former Chemin de fer de Petite Ceinture ('small(er) belt railway'), also colloquially known as La Petite Ceinture, was a circular railway built as a means to supply the city's fortification walls, and as a means of transporting merchandise and passengers between Paris' major rail-company stations. 1894, Conseil municipal de Paris (1922, 2) 1922, Conseil municipal de Paris (1924, 1) 1924, Conseil municipal de Paris (1931, 1) 1931, "The wild abandoned railway in the centre of Paris", Petite Ceinture Info (history, news, projects and interactive maps), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chemin_de_fer_de_Petite_Ceinture&oldid=994659136, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2017, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Today the 'Pont-Cardinet' station for the, Replaced by the subterrainian Porte de Clichy.  All that remained was the portion of rail connecting the Auteuil lines to the Ceinture Rive Droite under the railway lines from the (rebuilt and renamed since 1853) Gare St-Lazare: the underpass construction began in February 1867, and it and its new station, Courcelles-Ceinture, began service from 25 March 1869. Asia' Panier : Produits 100% Frais Livraison en 1h Service Disponible 7J/7 - Primeurs - Fruits, légumes et produits asiatiques à Levallois. Rondom het centrum van Parijs ligt een van de best bewaarde geheimen van de Franse hoofdstad.  The Ouest company, perhaps already predicting the inevitable, withdrew its engines and cars from Ceinture circulation after its 'Boulainvilliers' service began from 1901; the Ceinture Syndicate replaced these with material of its own and adjusted its train schedules to fill in the slack: fifteen new passenger-train engines, Nord 230Ts, arriving between 1902 and 1903, reduced the time it took for a full-circle trip by ten minutes. Statusmeldungen und Wartungsarbeiten. 5 Reviews #1,597 of 3,190 things to do in Paris. La section entre la rue Didot et l'avenue du génétal Leclerc est fermée au service voyageurs en 1934. [Taken in Paris (France) - 10Aug13] See all the photos of this place in this set : Petite Ceinture - Paris [Place] See all the urbex photos in this set : [Urbex] See all the Paris photos in this set : Paris … The first length of the Ceinture railway was completed 12 December 1852 between Rouen's Batignolles freight yards and the Pont du Nord, a point above the Nord company rails south to their station in Paris.  One year later, they compensated the Ceinture Rive Gauche's freight insufficiency with the opening of a new freight-yard that had been in the works since 1879, 'Paris-Gobelins', in 1903. , When the City began demolishing its fortifications from 1919, the Ceinture saw an opportunity to relieve their over-encumbered Charonne-Marchandises freight station by expanding it yet further onto the land freed, but the City refused their request, a setback that may have been behind the Syndicate decision to return all its from-main-line freight traffic to the Grande Ceinture the same year. Destroyed or abandoned, the city of Paris has decided to “put them back on track!" Explore paspog's photos on Flickr.  Just to the west of there the same year, the Ceinture opened a 'Paris-Brancion' livestock station below the still-expanding 'Vaugirard' slaughterhouses, and the Charonne-Marchandises freight-station expanded in 1904. https:/…La-petite-ceinture. Freight traffic had actually accelerated since the Petite Ceinture passenger service ended; the Tolbiac freight yard was renovated from 1954, and from 1972, Gobelins-Marchandes became an underground station with access ramps for trucks making deliveries to local commerces. , The Auteuil line's 1854 'Batignolles' station was destroyed during the renovation and enlargement of the Batignolles tunnels to the Gare St. Lazare from 1911, and the temporary station that replaced it took the name 'Pont Cardinet' from 1919; that same station would become the line's terminus in 1922 when, after a rail-traffic interrupting collapse of those same tunnels in 1921, it was moved there when the station's definite construction was complete.  That year, the Ceinture Syndicate park was 24 single-level first-class cars, 77 second-class cars, 1 class-mixed car (impèriale fermée), and 51 wagons used for baggage and freight. The Ligne d'Auteuil closed in 1985 to make way for the Réseau Express Régional (RER) C line. Vous ne savez pas comment trouver l’information que vous cherchez ?  By the end of the decade, France's rail was ruled by five distinct railway companies, each with their own exclusive monopoly over their respective regions of France.. augustus 14, 2014. Vous recherchez une piscine, un jardin, une bibliothèque, un lieu culturel... ? The Syndicate's shifting its freight transport to the Grande Ceinture made remedying this problem possible, and from 1886, with service reduced to one rail in many places, City engineers and Ceinture Syndicate workers built bridges, dug trenches, re-landscaped, and rebuilt stations, all in time for the 1889 universal exposition.
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